Many people consider nationalism as a form of patriotism. However, upon closer reading of the rules of this attitude, those two terms have nothing in common apart from love of homeland.
The term nationalism originated with the Latin word natio – race, nation, it defines ideology in which the highest value is the good of the country.
According to principles of nationalism, only a homogeneous nation, connected by language, culture and history, is an ideal form of social organization.
As a rule, when countries become more affluent, their residents get more liberal, more open to other groups. In recent history, wealth increased but politics became increasingly conservative and xenophobic.
Nationalist rejects ethnic minorities, strives to racial segregation and is reluctant when it comes to relations with neighboring countries. Twenty-first century concept of nationalism, based on social Darwinism, compares social life to the world of nature, where the constant struggle takes place, and only the strongest can survive.
Nationalism is an element of fascism, its features are visible in neo-Nazism and communism
There are two kinds of nationalism – moderate and extreme. The first one is based on the principle that the most important are the interests of the state and national community, often equated with patriotism.
The extreme variation of nationalism is jingoism. This ideology imposes the conviction of the superiority of their own country over others, increases the reluctance of other nations.
Radical nationalists spire to subordinate the other nations (national egoism), exaggerate the benefits of the idea and negate the flaws. This kind of attitude with a very aggressive form at a later stage, pushes away the society, realizing leader’s goals first.
Nationalist do not unite people but separates them
Discrimination manifests itself with unequal treatment of individuals, groups of people or even entire communities. It can be related to many aspects of life, starting with skin color, religion, the gender ending with sexual orientation. People can also be discriminated against on the grounds of their origin, political and material situation. This phenomenon also affects people with disabilities.
The cause of discrimination is strongly rooted in a constantly duplicated stereotypes. Contemporary image of a Muslim who is identified with a terrorist can serve as an example. Another example is the so-called pushing away women from male occupations, with which, according to the stereotype, they would not be able to deal.
Discrimination can occur in many ways, therefore, two types of discrimination can be distinguished.
The first is direct discrimination. It is when an individual or group of people is apparently treated worse than the rest of society, for instance offering lower wages for people with Roma origin.
The second type is indirect discrimination, which is based on a seemingly equal treatment of all, for example, rejecting disabled people as candidates in the recruitment for the job, even though they met all the requirements.
The effects of discrimination
The effects of discrimination is mainly social exclusion of a person or group. This leads to a loss of confidence, and aversion to life.
Fight against discrimination requires a lot of effort, elimination of the prevailing stereotypes and prejudices is a long term process. Education is necessary, especially education concerning children, who reproduce their parents’ patterns of behavior, not necessarily the right ones. International law says about equality of all people without regard to any factors, so it should be consistently followed in every situation and it should be reminded to those people, who do not apply to it.